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New Cochrane Review assesses different HPV vaccines and vaccine schedules in adolescent girls and boys

sri, 11/20/2019 - 14:32

New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today provides further information on the benefits and harms of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and vaccine schedules in young women and men.

HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract in both women and men globally (WHO 2017). Most people who have sexual contact will be exposed to HPV at some point in their life. In most people, their own immune system will clear the HPV infection.

HPV infection can sometimes persist if the immune system does not clear the virus. Persistent infection with some ‘high-risk’ strains of HPV can lead to the development of cancer. High-risk HPV strains cause almost all cancers of the cervix and anus, and some cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, penis, and head and neck. Other ‘low risk’, HPV strains cause genital warts but do not cause cancer. Development of cancer due to HPV happens gradually, over many years, through a number of pre-cancer stages, called intra-epithelial neoplasia. In the cervix (neck of the womb) these changes are called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). High-grade CIN changes have a 1 in 3 chance of developing into cervical cancer, but many CIN lesions regress and do not develop into cancer. HPV-related cancers accounted for an estimated 4.5% of cancers worldwide in 2012 (de Martel 2017).

Vaccination aims to prevent future HPV infection and the cancers caused by high-risk HPV infection. HPV vaccines are mainly targeted towards adolescent girls because cancer of the cervix is the most common HPV-associated cancer. For the prevention of cervical cancer, the World Health Organization recommends vaccinating girls aged 9-14 years with HPV vaccine using a two-dose schedule (0, 6 months) as the most effective strategy. A three-dose schedule is recommended for older girls ≥15 years of age or for people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other causes of immunodeficiency (WHO 2017).

Three HPV vaccines are currently in use: a bivalent vaccine that is targeted at the two most common high-risk HPV types; a quadrivalent vaccine targeted at four HPV types, and a nonavalent vaccine targeted at nine HPV types. In women, the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been shown to protect against pre-cancer of the cervix caused by the HPV types contained in the vaccine if given before natural infection with HPV (Arbyn 2018).

This Cochrane Review summarizes the results from 20 randomized controlled trials involving 31,940 people conducted across all continents. In most studies, the outcome reported was the production of HPV antibodies by the vaccine recipient’s immune system. HPV antibody responses predict protection against the HPV-related diseases and cancers the vaccines are intended to prevent. Antibody response is often used as a surrogate in HPV vaccine studies because it takes many years for pre-cancer to develop after HPV infection, so it is difficult for studies to follow participants over such long periods of time. Moreover, because trial participants were tested for HPV infection and offered treatment, if HPV-related precancer was found, progression to cervical cancer in this group would be expected to be very low, even without vaccination.

Four studies compared a two-dose vaccine schedule with a three-dose schedule in 2,317 adolescent girls and three studies compared different time intervals between the first two vaccine doses in 2,349 girls and boys. Antibody responses were similar after two-dose and three-dose HPV vaccine schedules in girls. Antibody responses in girls and boys were stronger when the interval between the first two doses of HPV vaccine was longer.

There was evidence from one study of 16 to 26-year old men that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine reduces the incidence of external genital lesions and genital warts compared with a group who did not receive the HPV vaccine.

There was also evidence from a study of 16 to 26-year old women that compared the nonavalent and quadrivalent vaccines that they provide a similar level of protection against cervical, vaginal, and vulval pre-cancerous lesions.

There was evidence from seven studies about HPV vaccines in people living with HIV. HPV antibody responses in children living with HIV were higher after vaccination with either bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine than with a non-HPV control vaccine. These antibody responses against HPV could be maintained up to two years. The evidence about clinical outcomes and harms for HPV vaccines in people with HIV was very limited.

Evidence suggested that up to 90% of males and females who received an HPV vaccine experienced local minor adverse events such as redness, swelling and pain at the injection site. Due to the low rates of serious adverse events in quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccine groups, and the broad definition of these events used in the trials, we cannot really determine the relative safety of different vaccine schedules.

The lead editor of this review and Consultant in Gynaecological Oncology, Musgrove Park Hospital, Somerset, UK, Dr. Jo Morrison said: “We need long-term population-level studies to provide data on the effects of dosing intervals, schedules and vaccines on HPV-related cancers, as well as giving us a more complete picture of rare harms. However, with fewer doses having a similar antibody response, and more extensive evidence from vaccine studies in boys, policy makers are now in a better position to determine how local vaccination programmes can be designed. It would be interesting to see how different schedules and vaccines influence immunisation coverage, but this review, and the studies within it, were not designed to be able to answer that question.”

Read the full review

Full citation: Bergman H, Buckley BS, Villanueva G, Petkovic J, Garritty C, Lutje V, Riveros-Balta AX, Low N, Henschke N. Comparison of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine types and dose schedules for prevention of HPV-related disease in females and males. 


WHO 2017
World Health Organization. Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017. Weekly Epidemiological Record 2017;92:241–68.
de Martel 2017
de Martel C, Plummer M, Vignat J, Franceschi S. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type. International Journal of Cancer 2017;141(4):664–70.
Arbyn 2018
Arbyn M, Xu L, Simoens C, Martin-Hirsch PP. Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009069.pub3

Friday, November 22, 2019

Cochrane in Practice - Dentistry

sri, 11/20/2019 - 03:02

Cochrane does not make clinical recommendations, instead it provides unbiased and high-quality health evidence so that health decisions, policies, and clinical guidelines can be informed by the best available evidence. ‘Cochrane Evidence in Practice’ series collects stories about clinical professionals using Cochrane evidence - the everyday healthcare professional making sure their patients and clients are getting the best care!

Dental Student Nicole's story:

Name: Nicole Meerah Elango
Position: Second Year Dental Student at Peninsula Dental School
Location: England

Cochrane has been an invaluable resource throughout my higher education journey. During my BSc Biomedical Science and MSc Mental Health degrees, Cochrane reviews remained an integral resource which supplemented my academic work, systematic review and meta-analysis.

I believe that Cochrane produces world-class research based on recent, high-quality evidence. The structured, comprehensive reviews have been instrumental to my clinical education whilst studying BDS Dental Surgery. Remaining up-to-date on the latest, high-quality evidence is essential to developing into a well-rounded dentist and the Cochrane Library has allowed me to do so. I encourage my fellow students to remain updated with the Cochrane Library to ensure we make informed evidence-based treatment decisions with our patients.  

At present, I am contributing to a Cochrane review update. I have also created a research series on Social Media which aims to educate the public and other students about high-quality evidence-based treatment and resources such as The Cochrane Library (see here and here). Feel free to follow and get in touch with me on Instagram: @nicolestudiesteeth

Cochrane does not make clinical recommendations. ‘Cochrane Evidence in Practice’ series collects stories about clinical professionals using Cochrane evidence. Would you  like to add your story of using Cochrane evidence? Please contact to share your story. 



Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Common Mental Disorders partnership with the Mental Health Foundation

uto, 11/19/2019 - 19:17

Cochrane Common Mental Disorders works in partnership with the Mental Health Foundation. This partnership helps Cochrane to produce evidence that is relevant to people with everyday lived experience of common mental disorders. Our work with the Mental Health Foundation enables us to better understand what matters to people and to improve the ways we involve people with lived experience in what we are doing. Together we aim to put trusted evidence at the heart of health care decisions for people with common mental disorders.

In June 2019 this partnership was officially launched by hosting an afternoon of debate and discussion at the British Library. Watch a short video about this day below:

You can also watch the Mental Elf live stream of the panel discussion '#MHResearchAndMe Mental health research: What’s in it for us?' here


Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Cochrane Indonesia’s 2019 Symposium

uto, 11/19/2019 - 16:55

Cochrane Indonesia hosted it’s Symposium on 11-17 November 2019, in conjunction with the 2nd International Conference on Clinical Epidemiology.  The theme of the Cochrane Indonesia Symposium was ‘The Role of Evidence Synthesis on Clinical and Health Policy Decisions Making.’ They hosted several workshops and many international speakers including ones from Cochrane Australia, Cochrane Thailand, Cochrane Malaysia, KEMENRISDIKTI, INCLEN, and Universiteit Antwerpen Belgium.  The symposium aimed to provide an international multidisciplinary platform for discussion and debate among health care providers, policy makers, academics, and researchers on contemporary strategies and issues in evidence-informed health care and policy formulation.


Tuesday, November 19, 2019

David Sackett Prize awarded to Sir Iain Chalmers

uto, 11/19/2019 - 14:48

Dr David Sackett was an originator of clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine. He contributed extensively to the development of research methods through his books and published articles, as well as through education and lectures at McMaster and around the world. Notably he turned clinical research into a scientifically sound and practical multidisciplinary “team sport,” and has changed for the better the quality of healthcare research and clinical practice. David was the first chair of the Cochrane Collaboration Steering Group in 1993.

This year, the GIMBE Foundation established an award in memory of David, which was presented at The Ecosystem of Evidence conference in November.

The first edition of the prestigious award was assigned to Sir Iain Chalmers by the organisers for;

  • Leading to the development of the Cochrane Collaboration
  • Launching the James Lind Initiative to help people to recognise untrustworthy claims about the effects of treatments
  • His flourishing scientific production: more than 500 papers in peer reviewed journals in the Evidence-Based Health Care (EBHC) field
  • His influential books
  • His courage, shared with Paul Glasziou, in pointing out research waste as a barrier to EBHC
  • Being a maverick: an unusual mix of biting British humour, insatiable intellectual curiosity, and Oxfordian self-composure


In a speech of thanks Sir Iain referred to Sackett’s inspired and inspiring leadership of the Evidence-Based Medicine movement, his invaluable contribution as the first chair of the Cochrane Collaboration, and his precious contributions to the James Lind Library.

A summary of the achievements of Sir Iain Chalmers, recognized by the David Sackett Prize is shown here

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Join Cochrane Crowd for the Cochrane Colloquium Challenge 2019!

sri, 11/13/2019 - 14:50

Cochrane Crowd are running a citation screening challenge to coincide with the Virtual Cochrane Santiago Colloquium! Help Cochrane Crowd reach 48,000 classifications in 48 hours and be amongst the first to try out the all new, shiny CINAHL task! Details on this and how to join in below.

When is it running?
Start: Wednesday 4th December at 11:00 am GMT
Finish: Friday 6th December at 11:00am GMT
You can check what time that is for you here

How much time do I have to commit?
Of course, we’d love you to do the whole 48 hours! Just kidding. Any contribution is welcomed, whether it be a few five-minute grabs or a more focused effort (so you better make sure you have some screening snacks to hand to keep those energy levels up).

Sounds good so far. But I’m new to Cochrane Crowd. What is it all about?
Your best bet is to watch our 2-minute video introduction here.

What is the new CINAHL task?
For this challenge we want you to help identify possible reports of randomised trials (RCTs) that we have retrieved from a source called CINAHL. We haven’t identified RCTs from this source before. CINAHL is THE source for nursing and allied health professional research.

If I join in, what will I be doing?
Your mission for this challenge is to assess those records from CINAHL and decide whether you think they are describing a randomised trial or not. There will be a brief training module to complete if you haven’t done this kind of task before task before. Once identified, these studies go into a central register where health researchers and practitioners can access them.

Will there be prizes?
Of course! We’re glad you asked! Yes, prizes will go to the top three contributors. What are the prizes, you ask? A snazzy (limited edition!) T-shirt and a highly readable book – it’ll be like Christmas come early!

How do I sign up for the challenge?
There is no need to sign up for the challenge per se. You can just head to Cochrane Crowd anytime during the 48 hours of the challenge and get cracking!  If you’ve not been to Cochrane Crowd before, then you can sign up here.

Sounds fun, can I tell all my friends about it and get them to join in?
Yes please! We want as many as possible to join us. Feel free to share this page (share buttons below).

Is there a Twitter hashtag?
Sure is, we’ll be keeping in touch with #ColloquiumChallenge2019

How can I find out more?
You can email Emily and Anna from Cochrane Crowd at And don’t forget to follow us on Twitter!


Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Join our virtual #CochraneSantiago, 2 - 6 December 2019…here’s how you can participate

uto, 11/12/2019 - 02:14

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We are delighted to announce our plans for Cochrane’s Virtual #CochraneSantiago which will be held online from 2-6 December 2019 and open to ALL Cochrane members and supporters.

Cochrane’s annual flagship event brings together the world’s most influential health researchers, scientists, academics, opinion leaders, clinicians, and patients to promote evidence-informed decision-making.

Whilst the recent, unprecedented situation of civil unrest across Santiago led to the cancellation of our face-to face Colloquium this year, with the support of so many contributors, we are pleased to welcome the full community to participate in Cochrane’s first, virtual #CochraneSantiago Colloquium.  Whilst we recognize our virtual meeting can never replace what we would have achieved together in-person in Chile, we believe that this unique week of content will be a fitting tribute to recognizing the extraordinary efforts of hundreds of contributors and Cochrane community‘s spirit of resilience and collaboration.

Virtual #CochraneSantiago will highlight the theme of ‘Embracing Diversity’. During the week of 2-6 December, content will be curated on our Colloquium website. We have created a dedicated page for each day’s content that will include posters, plenary content, bespoke curated materials from long and short oral presentations as well as pre-produced videos posted ‘as live’ on YouTube each day. In addition, we will provide ways you can interact with our daily content including discussion questions and social media conversations; and, we look forward to hearing from you on the wide-ranging discussions happening on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram using #CochraneSantiago, with Cochrane’s Content Creators helping to lead these conversations across our web platforms.

The Virtual Colloquium is an open invitation to all - whether you registered and were planning to travel to Santiago or not! More details on the final programme schedule and how you can get involved each day will be posted here soon.

We look forward to welcoming you and hope it’ll be a unique opportunity to fully embrace the diversity of voices that make up Cochrane’s global community.

Hold the date now - Monday 2- Friday 6 December 2019 for virtual #CochraneSantiago!

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Cochrane supports AllTrials report on UK clinical trial transparency used as a basis for parliament evidence session

pet, 11/08/2019 - 12:11

Cochrane recently supported an AllTrials report updating the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee on rates of clinical trial reporting among universities and NHS trusts.

The report, which used data from the EU Trials Tracker, updated the Committee on progress since it wrote to UK universities and NHS trusts in January 2019 urging them to fulfil their reporting requirement within six months.

Under the European Commission’s Clinical Trial Regulation, trial sponsors must post summary results to the EU Clinical Trials Register within one year of a study ending, or six months for paediatric trials.

Figures from the report show an overall improvement in the publishing of results for UK university- and NHS trust-sponsored trials – rising from 48.1% in January 2019 to 63.9% in October 2019. However, while some sponsors went from 0% to 100% during this period, 33 NHS trusts and 6 universities had 0% of their trial results posted.

The Committee used the report as a basis for an evidence session at Parliament which took place on 29 October. Stakeholders, including universities, NHS trusts and regulators, were questioned about reporting rates, and there was discussion about the action that needs to be taken to achieve 100% compliance in the UK.
Cochrane Editor in Chief, Dr Karla Soares-Weiser, said:

“At Cochrane, we rely on the availability of clinical trial data to produce high-quality and relevant systematic reviews. We welcome this effort among UK-based non-commercial clinical trial sponsors to improve reporting rates – though there is still clearly much more to be done for all sponsors to meet their full ethical obligations and achieve 100% compliance.

Given that this issue goes far beyond the UK, we think it’s time for similar coordinated action on clinical trial transparency in other countries. We encourage researchers, healthcare professionals, patients and members of the public to get involved and to hold clinical trial sponsors to account on their reporting rates.”

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Recommended Dose podcast: Dr Arnav Agarwal, recently graduated doctor

sri, 11/06/2019 - 14:52

Recently graduated doctor

This week, Dr Arnav Agarwal joins Ray to share the perspective and experiences of a young, recently graduated doctor working in a busy, metropolitan hospital. Despite the long shifts and demanding environment, Arnav makes time and space to reflect on work, life and mortality through his thought-provoking poetry and volunteer work.

Listen to Recommended Dose podcasts on SoundCloud, iTunes, Stitcher  or wherever you listen to your favourite podcasts. 

Find more details and our show notes the podcast page or follow on twitter  or facebook.

The Recommended Dose is produced by Cochrane Australia and co-published with The BMJ.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Podcast: Methods to help people quit smoking

pon, 11/04/2019 - 10:22

Cochrane podcasts deliver the latest Cochrane evidence in an easy to access audio format, allowing you to stay up to date on newly published reviews wherever you are. Each Cochrane podcast offers a short summary of a recent Cochrane review from the authors themselves. They are brief, allowing everyone from healthcare professionals to patients and families to hear the latest Cochrane evidence in under five minutes. Here we have curated three recent Cochrane podcasts on the subject of quitting smoking.

Podcast: What is the best way to use nicotine replacement therapy to quit smoking?

Nicotine replacement therapy has been used to help people stop smoking for more than 20 years, and a large and growing body of research has tested it. To help cope with this, some of the related Cochrane Reviews have been divided up and in April 2019 the evidence on different doses, durations and modes of delivery was updated into a new review. Here’s one of the authors, Samantha Chepkin from Cochrane UK to tell us what they found.

Podcast: Can rewards help smokers to quit in the long term?

Smoking is still the biggest cause of preventable death worldwide and there are more than 50 Cochrane Reviews of the effects of interventions to help people quit. One of these, on the use of incentives, which was last published in 2015 was updated in July 2019. We asked the new lead author, Caitlin Notley, from the University of East Anglia in the UK to bring us up to date with the evidence.

Read the Cochrane Featured Review

Podcast: Does motivational interviewing help people to quit smoking?

Smoking remains a substantial public health problem around the world and the search for effective ways to help people stop is ongoing, with more than 50 Cochrane Reviews providing evidence on a wide variety of interventions. One of these reviews, on motivational interviewing, was updated in July 2019 and the lead author, Nicola Lindson from the University of Oxford in the UK brings us up to date in this podcast.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Introducing Karla Soares-Weiser, Editor in Chief of the Cochrane Library

pet, 11/01/2019 - 12:02

Dr. Karla Soares-Weiser became the new Editor in Chief of the Cochrane Library in June. Karla replaced Dr. David Tovey, who stepped down from the role at the end of May following ten years of distinguished service.

Learn more about Karla's story and her journey through Cochrane since 1995 in the video below;

Karla Soares-Weiser was born in Brazil and now lives in Israel. She is a trained psychiatrist, holds a Master's degree in epidemiology, and a Ph.D. in evidence-based healthcare from the University of São Paulo. She has been working in evidence-based health care since 1997 and is an author of over 60 Systematic Reviews, including 33 Cochrane Reviews. She has held numerous positions in Cochrane Groups, including as a Visiting Fellow at the IberoAmerican and UK Cochrane Centres, where she provided training in systematic review production. Outside Cochrane she has held Assistant Professor posts in Brazil and Israel, and established her own consultancy business providing evidence synthesis services to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations. She was instrumental in the development of Cochrane Response, the organization’s evidence consultancy service; and in 2015 was appointed Cochrane's first Deputy Editor in Chief. Since 2016 she has been leading the transformation programme of Cochrane Review Groups into Networks, and in 2017 became Acting Editor in Chief for four months during David Tovey’s leave on health grounds.

Following her appointment, Karla reiterated her vision for the Cochrane Library: “to improve health care decision making by consistently publishing timely, high priority, high-quality reviews responding to the needs of our end-users. I am committed to working with the Cochrane community to achieve this vision, strengthening diversity, and striving for an excellent author experience.”

Friday, December 6, 2019

The Recommended Dose with Marion Nestle, one of the world's most powerful foodies

pet, 11/01/2019 - 11:30

Professor Marion Nestle

This week, Ray ventures into the notoriously complex field of nutrition with special guest, Professor Marion Nestle. Named by Forbes as one of the world's most powerful foodies, Marion’s stellar career spans five decades of research, teaching, advocacy work and the publication of countless prize-winning books.

Listen to Recommended Dose podcasts on SoundCloud, iTunes, Stitcher  or wherever you listen to your favourite podcasts. 

Find more details and our show notes the podcast page or follow on twitter  or facebook.

The Recommended Dose is produced by Cochrane Australia and co-published with The BMJ.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Cochrane Review on Saturated fats included in a report published by Public Health England

pet, 11/01/2019 - 10:58

A report on Saturated Fats and Health by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) has recently been published by Public Health England using evidence from the Cochrane Heart Group review, Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease.

The report from Public Health England considers the relationship between saturated fats, health outcomes and risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the general UK population.

Dr Saverio Stranges, author of this Cochrane Review explains,

“There is good evidence supporting the notion that reduction of saturated fat intake is likely to produce beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and clinical events, although the findings on mortality outcomes are less consistent. In addition, the current trial evidence suggests that replacing the energy from saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat should be considered as an effective strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk, whereas replacement with carbohydrate or proteins is unlikely to produce any cardiovascular benefit.

The current trial evidence, although not perfect and conclusive, is strongly suggestive of potential cardiovascular benefits from saturated fat reduction and relative increase in unsaturated fats.

This evidence is reflected in the report from Public Health England.”

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Cochrane’s Colloquium’s Gala Dinner food donated to local charity in Santiago

čet, 10/31/2019 - 13:45

Due to widespread violence and civil unrest in Santiago, Chile, this year’s Cochrane’s Colloquium was cancelled on Sunday 20 October 2019.

Our annual event would have featured a four-day wide-reaching scientific programme entitled ‘Embracing Diversity’ as well as a Gala Dinner open to all delegates on Thursday 24th October. Due to the cancellation, we are delighted to announce that all the pre-ordered food including catering provisions for a three-course Gala dinner has been donated to a local charity in Santiago.

Over the last few days, members from Cochrane Chile our Local Organizing Committee have been in contact with Movidos x Chile, a local, collaborative network of civil society organizations that focuses on coordinated action in response to humanitarian emergencies and disasters. Through this network, Cochrane Chile was connected with Corporación la Esperanza, who have successfully taken all the food from the Colloquium venue, CasaPiedra, for distribution to local good causes.

Corporación la Esperanza operates multiple drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities in Santiago free of charge to low-income patients and families, as well as running prevention programmes and public policy advocacy.

Through their work, they provide much-needed food supplies to approximately 100 people every day and recently they have had difficulty receiving new provisions due to the ongoing social unrest across Chile.

On receiving the supplies, they have expressed their heart-felt thanks and gratitude to all Cochrane delegates, members and supporters for this generous donation.

With our very best wishes,

Cochrane Chile and Santiago Colloquium’s Local Organizing Teams

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Share your virtual #CochraneSantiago posters and presentations

pon, 10/28/2019 - 17:01

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Dear Cochrane community,

Last week the unprecedented situation of civil unrest across Santiago led to the cancellation of the physical gathering of Cochrane's annual Colloquium. Whilst it has caused huge disappointment and inconvenience for hundreds of Colloquium delegates, we have been impressed by the generosity and perseverance to make the most out of this sad situation by our members and supporters.

On behalf of Cochrane and the Local Organizing Committee, I would like to invite those accepted for a poster or oral presentation to present their material virtually. Working with Cochrane Training, we will collect and curate the Colloquium content by topic and host them on our Colloquium website, the week of 2-6 December 2019. In addition, we will also be collecting plenary presentations and workshop materials and more details on these will follow.

Whilst we recognize our virtual meeting can never replace the valuable face-to-face interactions, we feel this week of virtual content it will be a fitting tribute to Cochrane community‘s spirit of resilience and collaboration. We invite the full community of Cochrane members and supporters to engage with virtual #CochraneSantiago from 2-6 December, 2019. Please mark your calendars and look out for more details as we get closer.

The theme of this year’s 26th Colloquium is ‘Embracing Diversity’. We hope that the virtual #CochraneSantiago can help contribute to reaching diverse audiences with diverse evidence needs for diverse health decisions.

With my personal thanks for all your support and best wishes,

Dr. Gabriel Rada
Chair of the Local Organizing Committee
Co-Director of
Cochrane Chile

Here’s how to submit your poster or oral presentation for the virtual Colloquium:

If you were accepted for a poster presentation, your poster and optional audio can be uploaded to the Colloquium website. We will curate the posters by topic and be back in touch with the wider community when posters are available to view.

To upload your poster to the Colloquium website:

  1.  Log in to the Colloquium website
  2. Go to “My submissions"
  3. Click on “Edit” next to your poster abstract
  4. Next to “Poster file” click on “Browse” to select a poster file (preferably a PDF)
  5. Select the poster file from your computer and then click “Upload"
  6. If you wish, you can also share an audio file of you ‘presenting’ your poster. Next to “Poster audio” click on “Browse” to select an audio file, select the audio file from your computer and then click “Upload"
  7. IMPORTANT: When you are finished, click on “save"
  8. The deadline for uploading posters is Friday November 8th

If you had a short or long oral presentation at the Colloquium, there are two options for you to submit this as a screencast (a video file of your slide presentation together with audio of you presenting). You can schedule a time with us to record your presentation online, and we will create a screencast for you. Or, you can record your own screencast of the presentation and share that with us.

We ask that duration be 5 minutes for short oral presentations and 10 minutes for long oral presentations. We will upload screencasts to the Cochrane Training YouTube channel and share these on the Colloquium website, so they will be publicly available.

To book a time with us to record your oral presentation as a screencast:

  1. Go to
  2. Select a suitable half hour presentation slot
  3. You can select more than one slot if you have more than one presentation, but otherwise please select only one suitable slot
  4. If you have more than one presenter, please book one slot and liaise with the other Colloquium colleague
  5. Use the 'Contact the poll creator' field to let us know the title of your presentation(s)
  6. IMPORTANT: Click “continue”, enter your email address and click “send"
  7. The deadline for booking slots is Monday 4th November

To submit your own screencast of your oral presentation:

  1. Go to:
  2. Upload your file. It’s helpful if you name the file with the same title as your presentation with first and last name in brackets afterwards
  3. The deadline for uploading presentations is Friday November 8th

Any questions? If you have any questions or need assistance with sharing your posters or oral presentations, please contact

Monday, October 28, 2019

Podcast: Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults

pon, 10/28/2019 - 13:26

Most Cochrane Reviews look at the effects of interventions on health, but a growing number provide evidence on how to diagnose a disease. In June 2019, one of these, on a test used to detect tuberculosis, was updated. The lead author, David Horne from the University of Washington in Seattle in the USA, sets the scene and tells us what the review found.

Tuberculosis, or TB, causes more deaths than any other infectious disease: 1.6 million people died from it in 2017. Most of these deaths could have been averted with earlier detection. The early diagnosis of TB is also important to prevent disease progression and long-term consequences, alleviate symptoms, and to protect public health by interrupting its transmission.

An important aspect of the global TB epidemic is the threat from drug-resistant TB. Unlike most other infectious diseases, TB treatment requires multiple drugs given for at least 6 months to prevent the emergence of drug-resistance and cure TB. But, some patients’ TB is resistant to the most potent drugs in a standard treatment regimen, rifampicin and isoniazid. Treatment of this multi-drug resistant or MDR-TB takes longer and requires drugs that are much more expensive and toxic than standard therapy. Every year, over half a million people develop MDR-TB or rifampicin-resistant TB; but, in 2017, only one in four of these started appropriate treatment and just over one-half of those were cured.

Culturing TB in the laboratory is the best test for diagnosing TB and is the first step in detecting drug resistance. Unfortunately, though, this complex and slow procedure is not widely available in many resource-constrained settings.

As an alternative, in 2010, the World Health Organisation recommended GeneXpert MTB/RIF as a rapid test that can simultaneously detect both TB and rifampicin resistance in sputum and other specimens. It’s designed to be used outside of reference laboratories in settings nearer to patients, such as hospitals and clinics in low-resource settings. The test has been a giant leap forward and called a “game changer” but it struggles if the patient has something called smear-negative pulmonary TB, when their sample contains too few TB bacteria. To try to overcome this limitation, the manufacturer introduced a new version called Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra.
We performed our first systematic review of GeneXpert in 2014 and this update allows us to bring in the more recent studies of both GeneXpert and Xpert Ultra for detecting TB in the lungs and for detecting rifampicin resistance in adults. We now have 95 studies, with 68 that were not previously available for our 2014 review, and data from more than 37,000 people.

Looking first at the detection of TB, we found that GeneXpert’s sensitivity was 85% and its specificity was 98%. This means that it correctly identifies TB in 85 of every hundred people with it, but suggests that TB is present in two in every hundred people without it. The sensitivity of GeneXpert was significantly lower for people with smear-negative pulmonary TB at 67%, compared to 98% in those with smear-positive disease. Similarly, sensitivity was lower in people living with HIV at 81%, compared to 88% for those who were HIV-negative.
The accuracy of GeneXpert was high for the detection of rifampicin resistance: sensitivity was 96% and specificity was 98%.

There is much less evidence for Xpert Ultra. We could include just one study, which compared Xpert Ultra to GeneXpert in over 1400 participants. It found that Xpert Ultra was more sensitive than Gene Xpert, 88% versus 83%, but its specificity was slightly lower, 96% versus 98%.

In summary, GeneXpert is sensitive and specific for the detection of both TB and rifampicin resistance. For TB detection, it has higher sensitivity in people who are smear-positive or HIV-negative. Based on a single study, Xpert Ultra had higher sensitivity and lower specificity for TB detection, but was similar for detecting rifampicin resistance. Therefore, we can conclude that both GeneXpert and Xpert Ultra provide accurate results and can allow rapid initiation of treatment for MDR-TB. However, there is still a need for additional studies of Xpert Ultra in diverse patient populations, including those with a prior history of TB. 

Monday, October 28, 2019

Dr. David Tovey awarded Emeritus Editor-in-Chief

pet, 10/25/2019 - 17:16

At its recent meeting in Santiago, Cochrane’s Governing Board has awarded Dr. David Tovey the title “Emeritus Editor-in-Chief.” This title is given in special recognition of David’s distinguished service as Cochrane’s first Editor-in-Chief of the Cochrane Library, 2009-2019. David stepped down from the role at the end of May 2019 following ten years in the role.

In hearing the news, David passed on his personal thanks to the Governing Board and Cochrane’s Community. He said, “I am extremely honoured to receive this honorary award from the Governing Board. Being Cochrane’s first Editor-in-Chief remains the highlight of my career to date, and I am most grateful for this recognition of my contribution.”

Friday, October 25, 2019

Cochrane advocates for clinical trial transparency at EU Parliament event

pet, 10/25/2019 - 14:35

Cochrane recently joined policymakers, civil society organizations and academics at the European Parliament for a roundtable event on clinical trial transparency.

Under the European Commission’s Clinical Trial Regulation, which came into force in July 2014, trial sponsors must post summary results within one year of a study ending, or six months for paediatric trials. However, there has been a lack of commitment towards implementation.

The event, which took place on 17 October, called for further action to ensure greater transparency of clinical trial data. It was organized by Health Action International and TranspariMED and hosted by Michèle Rivasi MEP.

The panel discussion also involved representatives from the European Commission, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Transparency International Health Initiative and Prescrire.

Sylvia de Haan, Head of External Affairs & Geographic Groups’ Support, spoke on Cochrane’s behalf, highlighting the value of clinical trial data to systematic reviewers and the fact that, without complete transparency, our reviews will not be able to provide a full view of the evidence.

Karla Soares-Weiser, Cochrane Editor in Chief, said of this issue: “The availability of clinical trial data is essential for Cochrane to produce high quality and relevant systematic reviews. Without this, we risk basing our reviews on partial data and to exaggerate benefits of a health intervention or underestimate its possible harms. Good health care decision making by policymakers as well as patients will be hindered.”

Read the full press release from Health Action International.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Introducing Cochrane’s Dissemination Checklist and Guidance

pet, 10/25/2019 - 13:32

Knowledge Translation (KT) in Cochrane is delighted to announce the launch of its Dissemination Checklist - a new resource that can improve the quality, consistency and translatability of dissemination products that present findings of a Cochrane intervention review. 

The 18-item Checklist and accompanying guidance is for anyone in Cochrane who produces, or wants to produce, dissemination products or dissemination product templates.  It shares the components of a high-quality dissemination product that you can check against your own product, along with tips and suggestions to use when creating your product, and examples of applying the new Checklist in practice. 

The Checklist is an output of Theme Two of Cochrane’s KT Framework, ‘Packaging and Push’ - a programme of implementation work to ensure that the users of Cochrane’s evidence can receive and act on our reviews and products. Effective dissemination of our evidence is a critically important part of our knowledge translation activities to ensure our review content is available to all people in a format and style they can interpret and use.

Starting in January 2020, we will deliver a wide range of opportunities to help people apply the checklist and disseminate their Cochrane evidence. More details will follow on how you can participate in our webinar series, new learning resources, and training opportunities.

We have also recently updated our Cochrane Training webpages on How to Share Cochrane Evidence.  On these pages, you will find information on:

To find out more about the Checklist, join us for an introductory webinar on October 31st 13:00-14:00.

You can register here

For more information on KT in Cochrane

Friday, October 25, 2019

Cochrane seeks Research Assistant in Evidence Synthesis (disease control) - Liverpool, UK

pet, 10/25/2019 - 10:56
Job type: Fixed-term for 1 yearWorking hours: Full time, 80% FTE considered on requestSalary: £29,176
Location: Liverpool, UKApplication deadline: 24 November 2019, 23:45

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine's department of Clinical Sciences has an exciting opportunity for a Research Assistant to join the team working as part of the “Research, Evidence and Development Initiative” (READ-It)

LSTM’S Centre for Evidence Synthesis in Global Health leads developments in evidence synthesis for tropical medicine and global health. In the 1990s, we helped establish Cochrane. We now run the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (CIDG), with over 150 Cochrane reviews and 600 authors throughout the world; we work closely with the World Health Organization and co-ordinate a global evidence ecosystem, with active partner programmes in South Africa, India and Sri Lanka.

As part of this, we are recruiting staff as part of a six year “Research, Evidence and Development Initiative” (READ-It) programme. The successful applicant will be part of this process and join the teams in the existing and new review portfolio, which will include working with the team to complete an ongoing Cochrane review on insecticide residual spraying for malaria. Our priorities are developing rapidly, and we are seeking to engage the successful applicant in a second high-priority area commensurate with their areas of interest.  For example, some topics under consideration include rapid diagnostic tests in malaria; triple therapy in filariasis; self-testing for HIV; and counselling after stillbirths. There are also a variety of methodological projects related to Cochrane including review updating and non-financial conflicts of interest; and formal evaluation of ease of access in LMICS to the Cochrane Library. Overall, we aim for a mixed portfolio to provide a broad exposure to evidence informed science.

The successful candidate will have a Masters that includes training in interpreting statistical and quantitative data; ideally you will also hold a postgraduate qualification in epidemiology or related quantitative topic. You will have experience in biomedical or social science research in low and middle-income countries and have the ability to critically appraise medical literature at postgraduate level.

You need to have completed a systematic review or an applied research project.  Additionally, you must possess evidence of critical insight into priority policy questions in international health relevant to infectious diseases.

If you have authored a Cochrane review, have experience of using GRADE, or have a track record in published research, it will be an added advantage to your application.

Take a look at our website where you will find annual reports of our work and learn more about the CIDG team.  Any further informal inquiries, please contact

This job is unlikely to attract a Tier 2 Certificate of Sponsorship (formerly a work permit).  Applications from candidates who require Tier 2 immigration status to work in the UK may not be considered if there are a sufficient number of other suitable candidates.  To apply for a Tier 2 Certificate of Sponsorship, employers need to demonstrate that they are unable to recruit a resident worker before recruiting an individual overseas.  For further information, please visit:

We believe that this post will not be suitable for individuals on Tier 5 visas as these posts are not considered to be supernumerary to the organisation. For further details, please visit the UKVI website:

LSTM actively promotes Equal Opportunities and Safeguarding Policies

To apply online click HERE

Please note: Early application is encouraged as we will review applications throughout the advertising period and reserve the right to close the advert early

Friday, October 25, 2019 Category: Jobs